True Primal is devoted to bringing you convenient, real-food products that meet rigorous standards of quality and taste—all while being in alignment with humanity’s design. In fact, delivering such products is the very essence of our mission as a company, and has been since day one.
Here’s a look at what our standards mean to us—and, consequently, for you!
“Primal” means first or fundamental. Along with “ancestral,” “primal” has become a popular description for living in a way that’s in line with how humans are designed to thrive. This means embracing exercise, fresh air, sufficient sleep, and stress reduction along with nutrition to achieve optimal health.
As it refers to diet, “primal” encompasses foods that are nutrient-dense and well tolerated by most people, typically with a long (think: thousands of years) track record for supporting human health.
Similar terms like “paleo diet” and “caveman diet” are sometimes used here as well, but we want to avoid fixating on a specific era of time (the Paleolithic period), since this can lead to counterproductive arguments about exactly what each tribe of people was doing and when. We don’t want to recreate the past—just apply the wisdom of alignment to the modern day.
All of our products support a primal framework by utilizing nutrient-dense, minimally processed plant and animal foods chosen for their congruence with human health. This also means avoiding synthetic ingredients, grains, and other common allergens that many people find problematic. In so doing, we aim to create the optimal conditions for the body to thrive.
We use superior animal products from high-welfare livestock—not only for the sake of human health, but also for the health of animals and the planet itself. To achieve this, we utilize programs like the Global Animal Partnership to constantly improve all of our farm and ranch sourcing, choosing meat suppliers that are as committed to quality as we are.
Our animal-based ingredients currently include:
- 100% grass-fed, free-range, antibiotic-free beef (including certified GAP-4 beef in our chili), which has superior micronutrient and fatty acid profiles.
- Fully pasture-raised, antibiotic-free GAP-4 chicken meat from slow-growth heritage breeds, which produces meat higher in collagen, zinc, iron, protein, and omega-3 fats.
- Gelatin and beef broth from grass-fed, pasture-raised cattle.
- Chicken broth from free-range birds.
We support agricultural practices that create harmony among humans, livestock, and the land—leading to deeply nourishing and health-promoting products. To join us on this mission, learn more about our commitment to Animal Welfare and Regenerative Agriculture.
Meat isn’t the only food that suffers at the hands of our modern agricultural practices. Conventionally grown fruit and vegetables have been shown to be lower in nutritional quality, lower in antioxidants, lower in phytonutrients, higher in heavy metals, higher in pesticide residue, and greater carriers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria than their organically grown counterparts.
Likewise, industrial farming methods like tilling, monocrops, and the use of chemicals and synthetic fertilizers can be damaging to the ecosystem—causing a loss of soil biodiversity, polluting local air and water, and increasing greenhouse gas emissions.
For these reasons, we source organic vegetables, herbs, and spices wherever possible, and support farmers who employ holistic farming methods. This allows us to create products packed with flavor and nutrition, without the potentially health-harming byproducts of industrial farming.
For our sweetened products, we use only natural, whole-food ingredients—particularly honey and maple syrup, which are both teeming with beneficial phytonutrients and prebiotic compounds. You can learn more about the health-promoting properties of these sweeteners in our articles:
Honey: Did You Know?
Honey might be a pantry staple in many households, but it’s far from an ordinary food! In... read more
Maple Syrup: Did You Know?
Maple syrup is one of nature’s most distinctive sweeteners, with a complex flavor... read more
Although other arguably “natural” sweeteners exist—such as monk fruit extract, stevia, agave, and more—we don’t view these ingredients as in full alignment with human health. Questions remain about how exposure to intense sweetness without calories impacts blood sugar regulation and metabolic health, and some compounds in these “natural” sweeteners appear to be endocrine disruptors (such as the steviol glycosides is stevia). Similarly, these lack the vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients that truly whole-food sweeteners contribute to the diet.
We’re committed to complete transparency of our ingredients lists. We never use secretive language like “natural flavors” or “spices,” but rather spell out everything one by one. This way, you always know exactly what’s going into your body.
Our Big List of “No”
When it comes to crafting the healthiest foods possible, the ingredients we avoid are just as important as the ingredients we embrace. When in doubt, we take an “err on the side of caution” approach—opting to exclude questionable ingredients in favor of those with an established history of non-harm in the human diet. Our big list of “No” serves as a guide for keeping our products in alignment with human health.
No gluten or wheat:
All of our products are free from gluten and wheat. While not everybody experiences sensitivities or allergies to these things, they can be problematic for many people—including those with celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, wheat allergy, irritable bowel syndrome, and some non-celiac autoimmune diseases.
Our products are free from monosodium glutamate (MSG), an additive widely used to impart a savory flavor to foods. Some studies show that MSG acts on the body’s glutamate receptors, impacting the release of neurotransmitters and potentially increasing the risk of obesity, disrupted fat metabolism, neurological problems, liver damage, and reproductive organ dysfunction. While the evidence of direct neurological harm may be weak, we are extremely concerned about any additive that tricks your senses into feeling you are receiving nutrition you aren’t actually getting.
No yeast or yeast extract:
We never use yeast or yeast extract, which are food flavorings made from the same yeast used for making beer and bread. Due to containing high amounts of free glutamate, these ingredients are often used by food producers to impart similar flavor properties as MSG, without having to legally declare “added MSG” on the label. Some yeast can also be contaminated with gluten, making it a potential exposure risk for people with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity.
No hydrolyzed vegetable protein:
We avoid the use of hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP), which is a flavor enhancer typically made from corn, soy, or wheat. As with yeast and MSG, it’s high in glutamate, and its most common production method (acid hydrolysis) can lead to the formation of 3-monochloropropane 1,2-diol (3-MCPD)—a contaminant that can potentially harm the kidneys and heart, cause fertility issues, and act as a carcinogen.
No artificial flavors:
Artificial flavors are additives created from synthetic substances and chemicals, designed to mimic the taste of natural ingredients. Some artificial flavors have been revoked by the FDA after being previously declared safe, leading to concerns about whether currently approved flavors might eventually be found harmful. In addition, food manufacturers aren’t required to label the specific artificial flavors their products contain, leading to a great deal of opacity about what you’re really eating. We categorically avoid any artificial flavors, opting to use real foods to make our products delicious.
No artificial colors:
Our products are free from artificial colors, which are synthetic dyes typically derived from petroleum. The vast majority of artificial colors have been banned due to evidence of harm, and research suggests the ones still approved for human consumption might be problematic as well—including containing known carcinogens, such as benzidine and 2- and 4-methylimidazoles. Along with potentially raising cancer risk, studies have linked artificial colors to DNA damage, inflammation, leaky gut, and behavioral issues in children.
No hormones or antibiotics:
As part of our mission to support animal welfare (as well as deliver the tastiest meats possible), we exclusively use animal products that are raised without added hormones and antibiotics. This ensures our foods won’t contribute to the wide-ranging health and environmental issues associated with hormone and antibiotic use in livestock—including the promotion of drug-resistant bacteria, disruptions in the human gut microbiome, and potentially increased risk of hormone-related cancers.
We avoid the use of preservatives—chemical substances that help prolong the shelf life of foods. Studies show that various preservatives can disturb glucose metabolism, increase diabetes risk, harm fetal development, induce DNA damage, impair the immune system, damage gut health, and increase the risk of some cancers. Some preservatives, such as sulfites, can also trigger allergic or asthmatic reactions.
No soy or soybean oil:
All of our products are free from soy and its derivatives, including soybean oil. Along with being common allergens, soy products are high in omega-6 fats, which can contribute to a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Soybean oil, in particular, has been linked to increased risk of diabetes and obesity, and may cause genetic changes in the brain that promote neurological problems.
No canola oil:
Canola oil is often viewed as a healthier vegetable oil, due its substantial monounsaturated fat content and relatively lower levels of omega-6. However, canola oil can contain trans fats that form during the deodorizing process, and some studies show a possible detrimental effect of its consumption on antioxidant status and memory. For our products that contain oils, we opt for unrefined fats with more favorable health profiles.
No cellulose gum/gel/powder:
We never use processed cellulose ingredients (gum, gel, and powder), which are thickeners made from the cell walls of plants—most often inedible sources like wood pulp and cottonseeds. Experiments show these additives can negatively impact the gut microbiome, potentially contributing to chronic inflammatory diseases and aggravating intestinal disorders.
No dry pulse beans:
Pulses are dried edible seeds that grow in a pod, such as dried beans and chickpeas (in contrast to fresh beans, like sugar snap peas and green beans). Although pulse beans are relatively nutrient-dense whole foods, they’re also common allergens, can cause digestive distress, and contain lectins that can be problematic for people with autoimmune disease. In some cases, they also act as allergic triggers for people with asthma and rhinitis. To help ensure our products are well tolerated, we avoid the use of beans—even in our Beef Chili!
No refined sugar:
Our products are universally free from added sugar—including sugars dressed up in healthy-sounding names (like coconut sugar, date sugar, corn sweetener, cane juice crystals, evaporated cane juice, and rice syrup). While we believe sweet treats can be a joyful part of the diet, added sugars bring little value to the foods they’re in, and are associated with increased risk of numerous inflammatory and metabolic diseases. We use minimally processed natural sweeteners that retain their nutritional content, and that the human body recognizes as food.
No corn syrup:
Our products are strictly free from corn syrup, a sweetener derived from corn starch. Along with providing no nutritive value, corn syrup has been linked to metabolic syndrome, can disturb the gut microbiome, and may be even more inflammatory than standard refined sugar.
No artificial sweeteners:
Our products are free from artificial sweeteners—chemicals designed to mimic the taste of sugar, but with fewer or zero calories. Along with tricking you into eating things that aren’t food, artificial sweeteners have been linked to a higher risk of cancer and heart disease, can negatively impact the gut microbiome, and may interfere with the body’s hormonal control of hunger signaling.
Along with gluten, our products are free from all grains, as they’re common allergens and are prohibited on a number of dietary regimens.
Our products never contain maltodextrin—a type of heavily processed carbohydrate with no nutritional value, often used to improve the texture of foods. Studies show it can damage the lining of the intestine, negatively alter the gut microbiota, promote inflammation, and aggravate colitis.
Because milk and other dairy products are common allergens and poorly tolerated by many people, we keep our products dairy-free.
A note on nightshades:
Nightshades are a botanical plant family that includes common vegetables like tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, and potatoes. Most people can safely consume these foods, but they contain compounds called glycoalkaloids that may trigger symptom flare-ups in people with autoimmune disease. Because nightshades are nutrient-dense and generally health promoting, we don’t categorically avoid them as ingredients. However, some of our products are nightshade-free and therefore acceptable for people following the Autoimmune Protocol.
Something For Everyone
We understand that many people have food intolerances, sensitivities, or preferences that put otherwise paleo-friendly ingredients off the menu. For this reason, we strive to offer options for those with additional dietary needs. This includes a number of Whole30-approved products and some AIP compliant soups.
The Bottom Line
We ensure that every decision we make about our products, no matter how small, is consistent with our core values—delivering the greatest possible nutrition with satiating, satisfying, quality ingredients. We’re confident you’ll be able to taste the difference!
- Daley CA, Abbott A, Doyle PS, Nader GA, Larson S. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr J. 2010 Mar 10;9:10. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-10.
- Lin CY, Kuo HY, Wan TC. Effect of Free-range Rearing on Meat Composition, Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation in Taiwan Game Hens. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2014 Jun;27(6):880-5. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13646.
- Ponte PI, Alves SP, Bessa RJ, Ferreira LM, Gama LT, Brás JL, Fontes CM, Prates JA. Influence of pasture intake on the fatty acid composition, and cholesterol, tocopherols, and tocotrienols content in meat from free-range broilers. Poult Sci. 2008 Jan;87(1):80-8. doi: 10.3382/ps.2007-00148.
- Crinnion WJ. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer. Altern Med Rev. 2010 Apr;15(1):4-12.
- Baker BP, Benbrook CM, Groth E 3rd, Lutz Benbrook K. Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insights from three US data sets. Food Addit Contam. 2002 May;19(5):427-46. doi: 10.1080/02652030110113799.
- Kim S, Woo GJ. Prevalence and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from conventional and organic vegetables. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 Oct;11(10):815-21. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2014.1771.
- Barański M, Srednicka-Tober D, Volakakis N, Seal C, Sanderson R, Stewart GB, Benbrook C, Biavati B, Markellou E, Giotis C, Gromadzka-Ostrowska J, Rembiałkowska E, Skwarło-Sońta K, Tahvonen R, Janovská D, Niggli U, Nicot P, Leifert C. Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses. Br J Nutr. 2014 Sep 14;112(5):794-811. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514001366.
- Figuerola EL, Guerrero LD, Türkowsky D, Wall LG, Erijman L. Crop monoculture rather than agriculture reduces the spatial turnover of soil bacterial communities at a regional scale. Environ Microbiol. 2015 Mar;17(3):678-88. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12497.
- da Rocha MP, Dourado PL, de Souza Rodrigues M, Raposo JL Jr, Grisolia AB, de Oliveira KM. The influence of industrial and agricultural waste on water quality in the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Environ Monit Assess. 2015 Jul;187(7):442. doi: 10.1007/s10661-015-4475-9.
- Qu Z, Wang J, Almøy T, Bakken LR. Excessive use of nitrogen in Chinese agriculture results in high N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio of denitrification, primarily due to acidification of the soils. Glob Chang Biol. 2014 May;20(5):1685-98. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12461.
- Cianciosi D, Forbes-Hernández TY, Afrin S, Gasparrini M, Reboredo-Rodriguez P, Manna PP, Zhang J, Bravo Lamas L, Martínez Flórez S, Agudo Toyos P, Quiles JL, Giampieri F, Battino M. Phenolic Compounds in Honey and Their Associated Health Benefits: A Review. Molecules. 2018 Sep 11;23(9):2322. doi: 10.3390/molecules23092322.
- Abou-Zaid MM, Nozzolillo C, Tonon A, Coppens MD, Lombardo DA. High-performance liquid chromatography characterization and identification of antioxidant polyphenols in maple syrup. Pharm Biol. 2008;46(1-2): 117-125. doi: 10.1080/13880200701735031.
- Schell KR, Fernandes KE, Shanahan E, Wilson I, Blair SE, Carter DA, Cokcetin NN. The Potential of Honey as a Prebiotic Food to Re-engineer the Gut Microbiome Toward a Healthy State. Front Nutr. 2022 Jul 28;9:957932. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.957932.
- Sun J, Ma H, Seeram NP, Rowley DC. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide in Maple Syrup. J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Sep 28;64(38):7142-7. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b03139.
- Turner A, Veysey M, Keely S, Scarlett CJ, Lucock M, Beckett EL. Intense Sweeteners, Taste Receptors and the Gut Microbiome: A Metabolic Health Perspective. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jun 8;17(11):4094. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17114094.
- Burke MV, Small DM. Physiological mechanisms by which non-nutritive sweeteners may impact body weight and metabolism. Physiol Behav. 2015 Dec 1;152(Pt B):381-8. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.05.036.
- Shannon M, Rehfeld A, Frizzell C, Livingstone C, McGonagle C, Skakkebaek NE, Wielogórska E, Connolly L. In vitro bioassay investigations of the endocrine disrupting potential of steviol glycosides and their metabolite steviol, components of the natural sweetener Stevia. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016 May 15;427:65-72. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2016.03.005.
- Roszkowska A, Pawlicka M, Mroczek A, Bałabuszek K, Nieradko-Iwanicka B. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: A Review. Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 May 28;55(6):222. doi: 10.3390/medicina55060222.
- Naseri K, Dabiri H, Rostami-Nejad M, Yadegar A, Houri H, Olfatifar M, Sadeghi A, Saadati S, Ciacci C, Iovino P, Zali MR. Influence of low FODMAP-gluten free diet on gut microbiota alterations and symptom severity in Iranian patients with irritable bowel syndrome. BMC Gastroenterol. 2021 Jul 14;21(1):292. doi: 10.1186/s12876-021-01868-5.
- Lerner A, Shoenfeld Y, Matthias T. Adverse effects of gluten ingestion and advantages of gluten withdrawal in nonceliac autoimmune disease. Nutr Rev. 2017 Dec 1;75(12):1046-1058. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nux054.
- Niaz K, Zaplatic E, Spoor J. Extensive use of monosodium glutamate: A threat to public health? EXCLI J. 2018 Mar 19;17:273-278. doi: 10.17179/excli2018-1092.
- He K, Zhao L, Daviglus ML, Dyer AR, Van Horn L, Garside D, Zhu L, Guo D, Wu Y, Zhou B, Stamler J; INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group. Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Aug;16(8):1875-80. doi: 10.1038/oby.2008.274.
- Allred LK, Nye-Wood MG, Colgrave ML. Analysis of Gluten in Dried Yeast and Yeast-Containing Products. Foods. 2020 Dec 2;9(12):1790. doi: 10.3390/foods9121790.
- The Origin and Formation of 3-MCPD in Foods and Food Ingredients. USDA National Agriculture Library. Food Safety Research Project Database. 2004.
- Jędrkiewicz R, Kupska M, Głowacz A, Gromadzka J, Namieśnik J. 3-MCPD: A Worldwide Problem of Food Chemistry. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Oct 25;56(14):2268-77. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2013.829414.
- Liu PW, Li CI, Huang KC, Liu CS, Chen HL, Lee CC, Chiou YY, Chen RJ. 3-MCPD and glycidol coexposure induces systemic toxicity and synergistic nephrotoxicity via NLRP3 inflammasome activation, necroptosis, and autophagic cell death. J Hazard Mater. 2021 Mar 5;405:124241. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124241.
- Schultrich K, Frenzel F, Oberemm A, Buhrke T, Braeuning A, Lampen A. Comparative proteomic analysis of 2-MCPD- and 3-MCPD-induced heart toxicity in the rat. Arch Toxicol. 2017 Sep;91(9):3145-3155. doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1927-0.
- FDA Removes 7 Synthetic Flavoring Substances from Food Additives List. US Food and Drug Administration. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition on Food, Dietary Supplements, and Cosmetics. 5 Oct 2018.
- Kobylewski S, Jacobson MF. Toxicology of food dyes. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2012 Jul-Sep;18(3):220-46. doi: 10.1179/1077352512Z.00000000034.
- Jacobson MF. Carcinogenicity and regulation of caramel colorings. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2012 Jul-Sep;18(3):254-9. doi: 10.1179/1077352512Z.00000000031.
- Price PJ, Suk WA, Freeman AE, Lane WT, Peters RL, Vernon ML, Huebner RJ. In vitro and in vivo indications of the carcinogenicity and toxicity of food dyes. Int J Cancer. 1978 Mar 15;21(3):361-7. doi: 10.1002/ijc.2910210318.
- Arnold LE, Lofthouse N, Hurt E. Artificial food colors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms: conclusions to dye for. Neurotherapeutics. 2012 Jul;9(3):599-609. doi: 10.1007/s13311-012-0133-x.
- Rowe KS, Rowe KJ. Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study. J Pediatr. 1994 Nov;125(5 Pt 1):691-8. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(94)70059-1.
- Tsuda S, Murakami M, Matsusaka N, Kano K, Taniguchi K, Sasaki YF. DNA damage induced by red food dyes orally administered to pregnant and male mice. Toxicol Sci. 2001 May;61(1):92-9. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/61.1.92.
- Vojdani A, Vojdani C. Immune reactivity to food coloring. Altern Ther Health Med. 2015;21 Suppl 1:52-62.
- Jeong SH, Kang D, Lim MW, Kang CS, Sung HJ. Risk assessment of growth hormones and antimicrobial residues in meat. Toxicol Res. 2010 Dec;26(4):301-13. doi: 10.5487/TR.2010.26.4.301.
- Andersson AM, Skakkebaek NE. Exposure to exogenous estrogens in food: possible impact on human development and health. Eur J Endocrinol. 1999 Jun;140(6):477-85. doi: 10.1530/eje.0.1400477.
- Adler GK, Hornik ES, Murray G, Bhandari S, Yadav Y, Heydarpour M, Basu R, Garg R, Tirosh A. Acute effects of the food preservative propionic acid on glucose metabolism in humans. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2021 Jul;9(1):e002336. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002336.
- Sambu S, Hemaram U, Murugan R, Alsofi AA. Toxicological and Teratogenic Effect of Various Food Additives: An Updated Review. Biomed Res Int. 2022 Jun 24;2022:6829409. doi: 10.1155/2022/6829409.
- Sarıkaya R, Cakır S. Genotoxicity testing of four food preservatives and their combinations in the Drosophila wing spot test. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005 Nov;20(3):424-30. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2005.05.002.
- Naidenko OV, Andrews DQ, Temkin AM, Stoiber T, Uche UI, Evans S, Perrone-Gray S. Investigating Molecular Mechanisms of Immunotoxicity and the Utility of ToxCast for Immunotoxicity Screening of Chemicals Added to Food. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Mar 24;18(7):3332. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18073332.
- Javanmardi F, Rahmani J, Ghiasi F, Hashemi Gahruie H, Mousavi Khaneghah A. The Association between the Preservative Agents in Foods and the Risk of Breast Cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2019;71(8):1229-1240. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2019.1608266.
- Rinninella E, Cintoni M, Raoul P, Gasbarrini A, Mele MC. Food Additives, Gut Microbiota, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Hidden Track. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Nov 27;17(23):8816. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17238816.
- Vally H, Misso NL. Adverse reactions to the sulphite additives. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2012 Winter;5(1):16-23.
- Vally H, Misso NL, Madan V. Clinical effects of sulphite additives. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009 Nov;39(11):1643-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2009.03362.x.
- Patterson E, Wall R, Fitzgerald GF, Ross RP, Stanton C. Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated Fatty acids. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:539426. doi: 10.1155/2012/539426.Deol P, Evans JR, Dhahbi J, Chellappa K, Han DS, Spindler S, Sladek FM. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 22;10(7):e0132672. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132672.
- Deol P, Kozlova E, Valdez M, Ho C, Yang EW, Richardson H, Gonzalez G, Truong E, Reid J, Valdez J, Deans JR, Martinez-Lomeli J, Evans JR, Jiang T, Sladek FM, Curras-Collazo MC. Dysregulation of Hypothalamic Gene Expression and the Oxytocinergic System by Soybean Oil Diets in Male Mice. Endocrinology. 2020 Feb 1;161(2):bqz044. doi: 10.1210/endocr/bqz044.
- Lambelet P, Grandgirard A, Gregoire S, Juaneda P, Sebedio JL, Bertoli C. Formation of modified fatty acids and oxyphytosterols during refining of low erucic acid rapeseed oil. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jul 16;51(15):4284-90. doi: 10.1021/jf030091u.
- Papazzo A, Conlan X, Lexis L, Lewandowski P. The effect of short-term canola oil ingestion on oxidative stress in the vasculature of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Oct 17;10:180. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-10-180.
- Lauretti E, Praticò D. Effect of canola oil consumption on memory, synapse and neuropathology in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 7;7(1):17134. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17373-3.
- Chassaing B, Compher C, Bonhomme B, Liu Q, Tian Y, Walters W, Nessel L, Delaroque C, Hao F, Gershuni V, Chau L, Ni J, Bewtra M, Albenberg L, Bretin A, McKeever L, Ley RE, Patterson AD, Wu GD, Gewirtz AT, Lewis JD. Randomized Controlled-Feeding Study of Dietary Emulsifier Carboxymethylcellulose Reveals Detrimental Impacts on the Gut Microbiota and Metabolome. Gastroenterology. 2022 Mar;162(3):743-756. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2021.11.006.
- Rousta E, Oka A, Liu B, Herzog J, Bhatt AP, Wang J, Habibi Najafi MB, Sartor RB. The Emulsifier Carboxymethylcellulose Induces More Aggressive Colitis in Humanized Mice with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Microbiota Than Polysorbate-80. Nutrients. 2021 Oct 12;13(10):3565. doi: 10.3390/nu13103565.
- Verma AK, Kumar S, Das M, Dwivedi PD. A comprehensive review of legume allergy. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013 Aug;45(1):30-46. doi: 10.1007/s12016-012-8310-6.
- Vojdani A, Afar D, Vojdani E. Reaction of Lectin-Specific Antibody with Human Tissue: Possible Contributions to Autoimmunity. J Immunol Res. 2020 Feb 11;2020:1438957. doi: 10.1155/2020/1438957.
- Kasera R, Singh BP, Lavasa S, Prasad KN, Sahoo RC, Singh AB. Kidney bean: a major sensitizer among legumes in asthma and rhinitis patients from India. PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e27193. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027193.
- Alam YH, Kim R, Jang C. Metabolism and Health Impacts of Dietary Sugars. J Lipid Atheroscler. 2022 Jan;11(1):20-38. doi: 10.12997/jla.2022.11.1.20.
- Rodríguez LA, Madsen KA, Cotterman C, Lustig RH. Added sugar intake and metabolic syndrome in US adolescents: cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Sep;19(13):2424-34. doi: 10.1017/S1368980016000057.
- Ma X, Nan F, Liang H, Shu P, Fan X, Song X, Hou Y, Zhang D. Excessive intake of sugar: An accomplice of inflammation. Front Immunol. 2022 Aug 31;13:988481. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.988481.
- Ferder L, Ferder MD, Inserra F. The role of high-fructose corn syrup in metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2010 Apr;12(2):105-12. doi: 10.1007/s11906-010-0097-3.
- Han X, Feng Z, Chen Y, Zhu L, Li X, Wang X, Sun H, Li J. Effects of High-Fructose Corn Syrup on Bone Health and Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Growing Male Mice. Front Nutr. 2022 Mar 30;9:829396. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.829396.
- Li X, Luan Y, Li Y, Ye S, Wang G, Cai X, Liang Y, Kord Varkaneh H, Luan Y. The effect of high-fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose on anthropometric and metabolic parameters: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Nutr. 2022 Sep 27;9:1013310. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.1013310.
- Debras C, Chazelas E, Srour B, Druesne-Pecollo N, Esseddik Y, Szabo de Edelenyi F, Agaësse C, De Sa A, Lutchia R, Gigandet S, Huybrechts I, Julia C, Kesse-Guyot E, Allès B, Andreeva VA, Galan P, Hercberg S, Deschasaux-Tanguy M, Touvier M. Artificial sweeteners and cancer risk: Results from the NutriNet-Santé population-based cohort study. PLoS Med. 2022 Mar 24;19(3):e1003950. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003950.
- Debras C, Chazelas E, Sellem L, Porcher R, Druesne-Pecollo N, Esseddik Y, de Edelenyi FS, Agaësse C, De Sa A, Lutchia R, Fezeu LK, Julia C, Kesse-Guyot E, Allès B, Galan P, Hercberg S, Deschasaux-Tanguy M, Huybrechts I, Srour B, Touvier M. Artificial sweeteners and risk of cardiovascular diseases: results from the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort. BMJ. 2022 Sep 7;378:e071204. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2022-071204.
- Shil A, Chichger H. Artificial Sweeteners Negatively Regulate Pathogenic Characteristics of Two Model Gut Bacteria, E. coli and E. faecalis. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 15;22(10):5228. doi: 10.3390/ijms22105228.
- Christofides EA. POINT: Artificial Sweeteners and Obesity-Not the Solution and Potentially a Problem. Endocr Pract. 2021 Oct;27(10):1052-1055. doi: 10.1016/j.eprac.2021.08.001.
- Zangara MT, Ponti AK, Miller ND, Engelhart MJ, Ahern PP, Sangwan N, McDonald C. Maltodextrin Consumption Impairs the Intestinal Mucus Barrier and Accelerates Colitis Through Direct Actions on the Epithelium. Front Immunol. 2022 Mar 14;13:841188. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.841188.
- Arnold AR, Chassaing B. Maltodextrin, Modern Stressor of the Intestinal Environment. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;7(2):475-476. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2018.09.014.
- Iablokov V, Sydora BC, Foshaug R, Meddings J, Driedger D, Churchill T, Fedorak RN. Naturally occurring glycoalkaloids in potatoes aggravate intestinal inflammation in two mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2010 Nov;55(11):3078-85. doi: 10.1007/s10620-010-1158-9.